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Indian Spices

List of Indian spices

Indian spices

Indian spices include a variety of spices grown across the Indian subcontinent (a sub-region of South Asia). With different climates in different parts of the country, India produces a variety of spices, many of which are native to the subcontinent, while others were imported from similar climates and have since been cultivated locally for centuries.

Spices are used in different forms: whole, chopped, ground, roasted, sautéed, fried, and as topping. They blend food to extract the nutrients and bind them in a palatable form. Some spices are added at the end as a flavouring and are typically heated in a pan with ghee or cooking oil before being added to a dish. Lighter spices are added last, and spices with strong flavour should be added first. "Curry" refers to any dish in Indian cuisine that contains several spices blended together, whether dry or with a gravy base. However, it also refers to Curry leaves, commonly used in South Indian cuisine.

Below is a list of spices and other flavouring substances commonly used in India.[1]

ImageStandard EnglishIndian EnglishTamilNotes
Alkanet RootRatin Jotरातीं जोट rātīṃ (rātīn) joṭ
AniseSeeds.jpgFennel seed[2]Suwa / Shopaसौंफ/सुव्वा/शोप saunf/suvvā/śop
Ferula assa-foetida - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-061.jpgAsafoetidaHingहींग hiṃg (hing)Intensely aromatic - related to Truffle and Garlic
Chilly ap.JPGRed ChilliLal Mirchलाल मिर्च lāl mirch
BlackCardamom.jpgBlack cardamomKali Elaichiकाली इलायची kāli ilāyachīVery earthy and darkly aromatic. A much used in North Indian curries.
White pepper whole.JPGWhite PepperSafed Mirchiसफ़ेद मिर्च saphed mirch
Black Pepper Grains.jpgBlack PepperKali Mirchiकाली मिर्च kālī mirchLargest producer is the southern Indian state of Kerala.
Black pepper.jpgPeppercornsKali Mirchकाली मिर्च kālī mirch
Black Cumin.jpgBlack CuminShah Jeeraशाही जीरा śāhī jīrāSweet, floral and smokey cumin and anise-like flavour. Smaller in size than regular cumin. Often mistaken as Caraway seed. Though English translation is black cumin, the term black cumin is also used as English translation of Nigella sativa, kalonji
Illustration Capparis spinosa0.jpgCapersKachraकचरा/कब्र/करेर kacharā/kabr/karer
Green-Yellow-Red-Pepper-2009.jpgCapsicumShimla Mirchशिमला मिर्च śimalā mirch
Celery seed.jpgCelery / Radhuni SeedAjmudअज्मुद/अज्मोदा ajmud/ajmodā
Charoli.JPGCharoliChironjiचिरोंजी chiroṃjī (chironjī)a type of nut particularly used in making desserts
Indian bay leaf - tejpatta - indisches Lorbeerblatt.jpgIndian Bay Leaf, Bay LeafTej Pattaतेज पत्ता tej pattāBoth Indian bay leaf and bay leaf are similar and called as Tej Patta in Hindi. however, they are from two different species and have differences in taste
Cinnamon BudsNag Kesharनाग केशर nāg keśar
Canelle Cinnamomum burmannii Luc Viatour crop1.jpgCinnamonDalchiniदालचीनी dālachīnīGrown commercially in Kerala in southern India. Two types, cassia (common) and royal.
Citric acid glass bottle.jpgCitric AcidNimbu Phoolनिंबू फूल niṃbū phūl
ClovesDried.jpgClovesLaungलवंग/लौंग lavaṃg (lavang) / lauṃg (laung)Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka are largest producers in India.
Coriander PowderDhania Powder / Pisa Dhaniaधनिया पाउडर / पिसा धनिया dhaniyā pāuḍar / pisā dhaniyā
Coriander.pngCoriander SeedDhania / Hara Dhaniyaधनिया dhaniyā
Piper cubeba - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-244.jpgCubebKebab Cheeni / Kabab Chiniकबाब चीनी kabāb chīnīTastes of Clove + Persistent Mild Numbing + Bitterness
Cumin Seed ground into ballsJeera Goliज़ीरा गोली zīrā (jīrā) golī
Sa cumin.jpgCumin SeedJeeraज़ीरा zīrā (jīrā)See Kali Jeera.
Murraya koenigii leaves - curry leaves.jpgCurry Tree or Sweet Neem LeafKaripattaकरीपत्ता / कढ़ीपत्ता karīpattā/kaḍhīpattāCannot retain flavour when dried. Only use fresh.
Fennel seed.jpgFennel SeedSaunf / Sanchalसौंफ / संचल sauṃph (saunph)/saṃchal (sanchal)
Qasuri Methi.JPGFenugreek LeafKasoori Methi, Driedकसूरी मेथी kasūrī methī
Fenugreek LeafMethi Leavesमेथी पत्ता methī pattā
Fenugreek-methi-seeds.jpgFenugreek SeedMethi Seedsमेथी दाना methī dānā
Char Magajतरबूज खरबूज ककडी पैंठे के बीज tarabūj kharabūj kakaḍī pauṃṭhe ke bījSeeds of Water melon, musk melon, cucumber and pumpkin
Assam-fruit-1-1.jpgGarcinia gummi-guttaKudampuliUsed in fish preparations of Kerala
Garam Masala new 2008-1.jpgGaram MasalaGaram Masalaगरम मसाला garam masālāBlend of 8+ spices. Each family has their own secret recipe.
Garcinia indica - fruits, seeds, pulp and rinds.jpgGarcinia indicaKokumकोकम kokam
GarlicBasket.jpgGarlicLehsunलहसुन lahasun
Ingwer 2 fcm.jpgGingerAdrakअदरक adarak
Ginger powder.JPGDried GingerSonthसोंठ soṃṭh (sonṭh)mostly powdered
Cardamone.jpgGreen cardamomChhoti Elaichiछोटी इलाइची chhoṭī ilāichīMalabar variety is native to Kerala.
Indian Bedellium TreeGugul, Guggulगुगल/गु्ग्गल gugal/guggalVery earthy aromatic mostly used in religious
Phyllanthus officinalis.jpgAmlaआँवला āṃvalā
Black Salt.jpgBlack SaltKala Namak / Sanchalकाला नमक / संचल kālā namak / saṃchal (sanchal)Rock salt, but with very sulfury smell.
KalpasiPathar Ka Phoolपत्थर के फूल patthar ke phūlAlso known as black stone flower
Liquiritiae radix suessholzwurzel.jpgLicorice PowderJethimadhजेठीमध jeṭhīmadh
Piper longum.jpgLong PepperPippaliपिप्पलि pippali
Mango ExtractKamikiकामिकी kāmikī
Sour Dried Mango PowderAamchur/Amchoor Powderआमचूर / अमचुर āmachūr/amachur
Mentha gracilis and rotundifolia MN 2007.JPGMintPudinaपुदीना 'pudīnā
Mustard.pngMustard SeedSarsonसरसों sarasoṃ
BrownMustardSeed.JPGBrown mustard SeedRaiराई rāī
Nigella Sativa Seed.jpgNigella SeedKalonjiकलोंजी kaloṃjī (kalomjī)
Muscade.jpgNutmegJaiphalजैफल / जायफल jaiphal/jāyaphalWhole nuts last forever. Powder, only a month.
Mace 1.JPGMaceJavitriजावित्री jāvitrīMace is outer covering to nutmeg nut. Similar aroma.
Starr 080117-1577 Ocimum tenuiflorum.jpgHoly BasilTulsiतुलसी tulasī
Panch-phoron.jpgPanch PhoronPanch Phoronपञ्च फोरन pañch phoranThis is a Bengali spice mix that combines fennel seeds, cumin seeds, fenugreek seeds, mustard seeds and nigella seeds.
An opened pomegranate.JPGPomegranate SeedAnardanaअनारदाना anārdānāDried not fresh. Is ground in Middle East.
Poppy seeds.jpgPoppy SeedKhus Khusखस-खस khas-khasvery popular in West Bengal known Posto, with no of Bengali cuisine, most popular Allu Posto
Fresh Hemp CannabisBhaangभांग Bhang
Saffron PulpKesar mari mariकेसर मिरी मिरी kesar mirī mirīActually, safflower concentrate
Iran saffron threads.jpgSaffronKesar, mayurकेसर / जाफरान kesar/jāpharānWorld's most expensive spice. Flavouring for rice.
Common-salt.jpgSaltNamakनमक namak
Sa white sesame seeds.jpgSesame SeedTilतिल til
Illicium verum 2006-10-17.jpgStar AniseChakra Phoolचक्र फूल / बदल फुल chakra phūl/badal phulExotic, Chinese-influenced flavours
Tamarind2.jpgTamarindImliइमली imalīProvides tartness in South Indian curries
Carom.jpgCarom/thymol seedAjwainअज़वाइन azvāin
Turmericroot.jpgTurmericHaldiहल्दी haldīSource of "yellow color" in many curries.
Basil-Basilico-Ocimum basilicum-albahaca.jpgFresh basilThai Basilतुलसी tulasī
A scene of Coriander leaves.JPGFresh CorianderHara Dhaniyaहरा धनिया harā dhaniyāFresh green leaves. AKA Cilantro.
green chilliGreen Chili PepperHari Mirchहरी मिर्च harī mirch
Gum TragacanthKatira Goondकटीरा गोंद kaṭīrā goṃd (gond)A thickener and coating for desserts
Harra (Terminalia chebula) hanging fruit at 23 Mile, Duars, WB W IMG 5902.jpgInknut Terminalia chebulaHarad / Harr / Haritakiहरद harad
വറ്റൽമുളക്.jpgDried Red Chili PepperLal Mirchiलाल मिर्च lāl mirch

See also

References

  1. ^ About Indian spices, "[1]", Indian spices
  2. ^ dictionary.reference.com: anise

External links

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